Information

The agricultural tractor in the New Highway Code

The agricultural tractor in the New Highway Code

Classification of agricultural machinery

Agricultural machines are divided into two main categories:

PROPELLED:
a) Agricultural tractors with 2 or more axles
b) 1-axle agricultural machines
c) Agricultural machines operating with 2 or more axes
d) 2-axle motoblocks

DRAWN:
a) Mounted agricultural machines
b) Semi-mounted operating agricultural machines
c) Agricultural trailers

1. SELF-PROPELLED AGRICULTURAL MACHINES

Self-propelled agricultural machines are driven by their own motor and include:
a) Agricultural tractors with 2 or more axles, with or without a loading surface, with wheels or tracks, intended to tow, push, transport or operate tools, mounted or semi-mounted equipment and trailers used in agricultural activity (e.g. agricultural tractor) .
b) 1-axle agricultural machines, generally driven by a driver on the ground and equipped with a separable trolley intended for the transport of the driver only. The total mass must be less than 700 kg, including the driver (e.g. walking tractor and motor mower).
c) Agricultural machines operating with 2 or more axes, equipped with their own engine and intended for particular agricultural processes.
They can be prepared for the application of special equipment for agricultural processing (e.g. combine harvester).
d) 2-axle motoblocks, equipped with their own engine and suitable for loading and in possession of the "Certificate of technical suitability for circulation".
Self-propelled agricultural machines, if they have at least 2 axles, can tow a trailer of any weight, while those with 1 axle (motor mower, walking tractors, etc.) cannot tow trailers.

2. TOWED AGRICULTURAL MACHINES

The towed agricultural machines are without their own motor and are coupled to a self-propelled agricultural machine, except those with 1 axle, as for example. the cultivator.
They can be of type:
a) carried (e.g. spreader, centrifugal fertilizer spreader) if their mass rests completely on the towing tractor;
b) semi-carried (e.g. atomizer) if their mass is borne in part on the towing tractor and in part on the wheels of the equipment being towed;
c) agricultural trailers towable by tractor, with at least 1 axle, intended for the transport of goods and having a total laden mass exceeding 1.5 t. Agricultural trailers with a total laden mass of up to 1.5 t are considered an integral part of the agricultural tractor.

Registration and revision of agricultural machinery

The following agricultural machines are subject to registration and therefore have the registration certificate:
- agricultural tractors
- operating machines with 2 or more axes
- agricultural trailers with a total laden mass greater than 1.5 t
They are not subject to registration and therefore for their circulation only a certificate of technical suitability is required, the following agricultural machines:
- self-propelled operating machines with 1 axis
- agricultural trailers with a total laden mass of less than 1.5 t
- towed operating machines
The registration certificate and the certificate of technical suitability are both issued by the Civil Motorization Authority, responsible for the territory (M.C.T.C.), and they report all the technical characteristics of the agricultural machine. Only on the registration certificate are the identification details of the vehicle identification plate and the owner's general information.
Plates of agricultural machines
The self-propelled agricultural machinery, to be used on the road, must be equipped with an identification plate on the rear, containing:
- 2 alphabetic characters
- the official trademark of the Italian Republic
- 3 numeric characters
- 1 alphabetical character
Agricultural trailers, excluding those with a total laden mass of less than 1.5 t, must be fitted laterally with a plate containing the registration data of the trailer:
- the writing “RIM. AGR. "
- 2 alphabetic characters
- the official trademark of the Italian Republic
- 3 numeric characters
- 1 alphabetical character
The repeater plate for towed agricultural trailers (which must be placed behind the trailer), shows the characters of the tractor in the order, but instead of the official trademark of the Italian Republic the letter "R".
The test plate for agricultural machinery shows in the order:
- 2 alphabetic characters
- the official trademark of the Italian Republic
- the letter "P"
- 3 numeric characters
- the word "MA" with the letters arranged vertically
The plate cannot be modified, it must always be well cleaned and, when required, illuminated by the prescribed white light in order to make it readable at least at 20 m. [1]
Revision
The Ministry of Transport with the MIPA may order, with a period of not less than 5 years, the general or partial overhaul of agricultural machinery starting from the date of first registration. A specific regulation establishes the procedures, times and methods for carrying out the review.
The offices of the General Management of the M.C.T.C. they can at any time order the partial or total overhaul of individual agricultural machines, if doubts arise about the persistence of traffic safety requirements.
Those who drive on the road with an agricultural machine that has not been inspected are subject, in addition to the payment of a fine, to the withdrawal of the registration certificate or the certificate of technical suitability.

Agricultural machinery insurance

Law 24.12.69 n. 990 and subsequent amendments make compulsory R.C.A. insurance for all motor vehicles (excluding agricultural machinery and mopeds) [2] (Motor Vehicle Liability).
Only from 1 October 1993 this obligation has also been extended to mopeds and isolated self-propelled agricultural machines and towing agricultural trailers.
In particular, the policy must guarantee:
1. compensation for damages, following a road accident, caused to people, animals and things by the movement of the self-propelled agricultural machine isolated and also towing a trailer;
2. compensation for damage caused by the trailer parked or detached from the towing vehicle (static risk), during any hand maneuvers, mechanical failure, construction defects or maintenance defects;
3. compensation for damages caused to the persons transported, only in the event that said transport is provided for by the registration certificate.
It will therefore be necessary to stipulate the following association contracts:

2-axle self-propelled agricultural machines:
- it is mandatory to insure the self-propelled agricultural machine.

Agricultural machinery towing trailers with a total mass of less than 1.5 t:
- Since these trailers are considered an integral part of the tractor, it is sufficient to insure only the self-propelled agricultural machine.

Agricultural machinery towing trailers of a total mass exceeding 1,5 t:
- R.C.A. insurance coverage is mandatory for the towing agricultural machine and also the stipulation of another policy for the so-called static risk for compensation, that is, of the damages caused by the trailer detached from the tractor.

It is also good to remember that:
- The aforementioned covers or that of the towing vehicle and that relating to static risk do not cover the risk of using them. This means that any damage caused during loading and unloading, excavation, etc. they are not considered for circulation and therefore it will be necessary to protect oneself, if deemed appropriate, with another agricultural liability policy;
- Atomizers, manure spreaders, tank loaders, etc. are also considered agricultural trailers;
- The equipment brought by the tractor does not require any insurance guarantee;
- The Highway Code does not impose an obligation to display insurance signs on the agricultural machine, however it is advisable to have them with you, together with the insurance contract or a copy of the same, in order to show them, if required, to the officials in charge;
- The circulation of an agricultural machine without insurance provides an administrative sanction of one to four million, plus the possible seizure of the vehicle.

Technical notes
- The minimum ceiling [3] required by law is currently 1.5 billion, but with a modest premium it is convenient to bring the ceiling to higher values.
- The insurance is not effective if the driver is not enabled to drive or drives in a state of intoxication or under the influence of narcotic substances.
- The insurance form of the agricultural machine and its trailers is at a fixed rate; this means that the premiums to be paid do not undergo increases or decreases as is the case for the fare for cars (bonus-malus [4]).

Driving documents

Road traffic documents
When driving on the road, the following documents must be brought with you:
- driving license;
- registration certificate of the tractor;
- registration plate of the tractor;
- tractor repeater plate applied on the rear part of the trailer;
- certificate of technical suitability of the trailer if it has a total mass of less than 1.5 t;
- registration certificate and registration plate of the trailer if the total mass exceeds 1.5 t;
- the insurance markings on the agricultural machine and on the trailer, together with the insurance contract or a copy thereof.
Driving licenses for agricultural machinery
The category A license, which can be obtained at 16 years of age, enables the driving of agricultural machines or their complexes with the following characteristics: length m 4; width 1.60 m; height 2.50 m; maximum speed 40 km / h; total laden mass up to 2.5 t; no passengers on board.
The category B license, which can be obtained at 18 years of age, enables the driving of agricultural machines even in towing service regardless of their weight and, if required by the registration certificate, even if they transport other people, besides the driver.
A driving license is not required to drive a walking tractor weighing less than 5 quintals with the driver on the ground.
Those in possession of the authorization to practice driving to obtain driving licenses A or B, "pink sheet", can practice driving not only on vehicles of the categories for which the license has been requested but also on agricultural machinery.
On the agricultural machine during driving exercises there is no obligation to apply the mark with the alphabetical letter P (beginner). If the agricultural machine cannot transport other people besides the driver, the exercises can be carried out with the driving only the aspirant, provided that they take place in little frequented places. The administrative penalty for not respecting driving in less frequented places is one hundred thousand lire.

Visual and lighting signaling devices

Self-propelled agricultural machines must be equipped with the following visual and lighting devices:
before:
- 2 white position lights
- 2 white high / low beam headlamps
- 2 flashing direction indicators, amber yellow
Later:
- 2 red position lights
- 2 red brake lights, more intense than that of the position lights
- 1 white license plate light
- 2 red reflectors, of any shape except triangular
- 2 flashing direction indicators, amber yellow
Laterally:
- 2 flashing direction indicators, amber yellow
If the self-propelled agricultural machine is of exceptional size, the clearance lights must be mounted: front in amber yellow and rear in red.
Any towed agricultural machine which, while driving, limits the visibility of the visual devices of the towing machine, must be equipped with:
before:
- 2 white position lights, if the trailer is wider than 1.60 m
- 2 white non-triangular reflex reflectors
Later:
- 2 red position lights
- 2 red stop lights
- 2 flashing direction indicators, amber yellow
- 1 white license plate light
- 2 triangular red reflectors
Laterally:
- 2 non-triangular orange or amber yellow reflex reflectors
- 2 amber position lights, if the length is more than 6 m
On agricultural machines not used for loading, the foreseen devices can be mounted on a removable support.

Note


[1]
If the plate, over the years, is not perfectly legible because it has faded or covered with rust, it is necessary to provide for a new registration of the agricultural machine.
The same obligation applies even if the license plate remains destroyed in a road accident.
In the event of theft, loss or destruction of the plate, it is, however, necessary to file a complaint within 48 hours with the police bodies who formally take note of it and issue a suitable receipt.
After 15 days from the presentation, if the reasons that led to the complaint remain, the holder must request the General Management of the M.C.T.C. a new registration.
During the waiting period of the new license plate, the vehicle can be moved after affixing on it a white background panel showing the indications contained in the original plate and with the same dimensions.

[2] The Civil Code obliges the owner, jointly and severally with the driver, to compensate for the damage caused to people, animals and things during the movement of the vehicle. For this type of liability, it is mandatory to take out an insurance policy that covers the aforementioned damages, within the limits of the fixed ceilings. The insurance coverage also applies to damage resulting from construction defects or maintenance defects. The insurance also compensates the damages suffered by the people transported, but only if the vehicle is used for the transport of people. The driver and the damages suffered by his vehicle are not included in the compulsory insurance. however, upon request, it is possible to extend the insurance coverage not only to the driver and to his own damages, but also to other events (theft, fire, roadside assistance, etc.).

[3] Maximum sum that the insurance pays to compensate the damage that the vehicle can cause.

[4] It is an insurance form valid only for cars which, for the years following the signing of the contract, provides for a reduction in the premium to be paid for policyholders who have not caused accidents, while an increase in the annual premium is imposed on those who have made themselves road accident managers.


Video: Tractor Safety Highway English Part 1 (January 2022).