Italian: Simulations 2019 Italian State Exam

Italian: Simulations 2019 Italian State Exam

Upper Secondary Education - Simulation February 2019

Carry out the test, choosing one of the three types proposed here.

Example 1.



Giovanni Pascoli, Patria
I dream of a summer.

How much ringing
trembling cicadas!
Stridule for the row
the mistral moved
the crumpled leaves.

The sun went down among the elms
in dusty bands:
there were only two in heaven
clouds, muted, róse 1:
two white brushes

all over the blue sky.

Pomegranate hedges,
tamarisk fracts 2,
the distant throb
threshing dune,
Langelus Argentine 3 ...

paralyzed? The bells
they told me rightly,
crying while a dog
was striving to the stranger,
who was bowing his head.
The title of this composition by Giovanni Pascoli was originally Summer and only in the edition of Myricae of 1897 becomes Patria, with reference to his native town, San Mauro di Romagna, a place always regretted by the poet.

Understanding and analysis
1. Briefly identify the themes of the poem.
2. How can the title "Patria" and the first verse "Sogno dun dí destate" both summarize the entire composition?
3. Reality is described through sounds, colors, sensations. He tries to identify with which metric and expressive solutions the poet obtains the result of transfiguring nature, which becomes a mirror of his feeling.
4. What is the meaning of the proper question with which the last verse begins?
5. The return to reality, in the end, reaffirms the estranged dimension of the poet, even beyond the dream. Focus on how this concept is expressed and on the definition of oneself as a foreigner, a word full of meaning.
You can answer point by point or build a single speech that includes the answers to the questions asked.

The theme of uprooting in this and other Pascoli's poems becomes the expression of an existential unease that goes beyond the poet's biographical data and takes on a universal dimension. Many texts of nineteenth and twentieth century literature deal with the theme of extraneousness, loss, isolation of the individual, who for various reasons and in different contexts is unable to integrate into reality and has a conflicting relationship with the world, in front of which he feels a stranger . Learn more on the basis of your readings and experiences.

1 corroded

2 bushes of tamarisks (the singular is motivated by the rhyme with thresher)

3 the sound of bells that at various times of the day calls to prayer (angelus) is sharp, as if it were produced by the percussion of a silver surface (Argentine).



Example 2.

Elsa Morante, History (Turin, Einaudi 1974, p. 168).
La Storia, a historical novel published in 1974 and set in Rome during and after the last war (1941-1947), was written by Elsa Morante (1912-1985) in the years of her maturity, after the success of "Menzogna e sortilegio "and" L'isola di Arturo ". The characters are beings of insignificant fate, which History ignores. The narration is interspersed with pages of historical events in chronological order, as if to mark their distance from the existence of individuals oppressed by history, losing creatures crushed by the war scandal.
One of those mornings Ida, with two big bags in her arm, came back from shopping holding Useppe's hand. [...] They left the tree-lined avenue not far from the Scalo Merci, heading towards Via dei Volsci, when, not warned by any alarm, a metallic and buzzing orchestra clamor was heard advancing in the sky. Useppe looked up, and said, "Lioplani" 1. And at that moment the air whistled, while already in an enormous thunder all the walls fell behind them and the ground jumped around them, chopped into a machine gun of fragments.
"Useppe! Useppee! " Ida shouted, thrown into a black and dusty cyclone that prevented her sight: "I'm here," he replied at the height of his arm, his little voice, almost reassuring. It took him in the neck 2 […].
Meanwhile, the sound of sirens had begun. In her run she felt that she was sliding downwards, as if she had skates, on a removed ground that seemed plowed, and that she was smoking. Towards the bottom, she fell into a seat, with Useppe squeezed in her arms. In the fall, her load of vegetables had poured from her basket, among which, scattered at her feet, the colors of peppers shone, green, orange and bright red.
With one hand, she clung to a crashed root, still covered in shattered potting soil, which protruded towards her. And settling better, curled up around Useppe, she began to palpate him feverishly all over her body, to make sure she was unharmed 3. Then she placed the empty bag on his head like a protective helmet. [...] Useppe, crouched against her, looked at her face, from under the basket, not frightened, but rather curious and thoughtful. "It's nothing," she said, "Don't be afraid. It's nothing". He had lost his sandals but still held his ball tight in his fist. At the loudest crashes, it was barely felt to tremble:
"Nothing ..." he then said, between persuaded and questioning.
Her bare feet balanced quietly 4 to Ida, one here and one there. For as long as they waited in that shelter, his eyes and those of Ida remained intent on looking at each other. She could not have said the length of that time. His wristwatch had broken; and there are circumstances in which it is impossible for the mind to calculate a duration.
At the end of the alarm, in appearing out there, they found themselves in an immense cloud of dust 5 which hid the sun, and made it cough with its tar taste: through this cloud, flames and black smoke could be seen on the part of the Freight Terminal. [...] Finally, beyond a half-destroyed building, from which hung beams and shutters 6, among the usual fuss of ruin, Ida recognized 7, intact, the building 8 with the tavern, where the alarm nights went to take refuge. Here Useppe struggled with such frenzy that he managed to free himself from his arms and descend to the ground. And running with his bare feet towards a denser cloud of dust, he began to shout:
"Bii! Biii! Biiii! " 9
Their building was destroyed […]
Downstairs screaming or speechless figures prowled between the concrete slabs, the wrecked furniture, the heaps of scrap and garbage. No wailing came up, down there they must all be dead. But some of those figures, under the action of an idiotic mechanism, were poking or rasping with their nails among those heaps, looking for someone or something to recover. And in the midst of all this, Useppe's little voice kept calling:
"Bii! Biii! Biiii! "

Understanding and analysis
1. The episode represents the air raid on Rome on 19 July 1943. It summarizes the scene in which mother and son find themselves involved, focusing in particular on the environment and the reactions of the characters.
2. "A metallic and buzzing orchestra clamor was heard advancing in the sky"; how do you explain this sound description? What effect does it produce?
3. The bombing is filtered through Useppe's eyes. From what details does the innocent gaze of the child emerge?
4. In the story there are some apparently incongruous and useless objects that are instead elements of a vivid and dazzling memory, almost snapshots. Try to indicate some of them, assuming their symbolic meaning.
You can answer point by point or build a single speech that includes the answers to the questions asked.

The novel focuses on two fundamental questions: on the one hand the role of history in works of fiction, a problem that from Manzoni onwards many Italian writers have faced identifying different solutions; on the other, particularly in this passage, the choice of the innocent and childlike gaze of a child, amazed at enormous and incomprehensible events. It develops one of these tracks by comparing the solutions adopted by Morante in the text with other examples studied in the school or personal path belonging to twentieth-century and contemporary literature or cinema.

1 Lioplani: stands for airplanes in the child's language.

2 in the neck: in the arm.

3 unharmed: not injured.

4 berth: next door.

5 powder: full of dust.

6 torn: tear away.

7 recognized: he began to see, to recognize.

8 the building: the building, the building.

9 Bii: childhood deformation of Blitz, the name of the dog that lived with Ida and Useppe.



Example 1.

Arnaldo Momigliano considers the general interest in the things of the past and the pleasure of discovering new facts concerning humanity to be fundamental characteristics of the historian's work. It is a definition that implies a close link between the present and the past and that is well suited also looking for things and facts close to us.
But how does this interest and pleasure arise? The first mediation between present and past generally takes place within the family, in particular in the relationship with parents and sometimes, as Bloch noted, even more with grandparents, who escape the immediate antagonism between generations 2. In this context many times the nostalgia of the old generation prevails towards the time of youth and the urge to see one's memory systematized thus providing meaning, albeit in retrospect, for one's life. On this path, you can become irritating laudatores temporis acti ("praisers of the past”), but also arousing curiosity and pietas ("affection and devotion”) towards what has been in the past. And the rejection of history can arise, mainly focusing the attention of young people on the present and the future, or the desire to know the past better and better precisely in order to better understand today and the prospects that it opens for tomorrow . The two attitudes are well summarized by the words of two classics. Ovid recommended Laudamus veteres, sed nostris utemur annis («We praise ancient times, but we know how to move in ours»); and Tacitus: Further mirari, presentia sequi («Looking to the future, staying in one's own time») 3.
The teaching of contemporary history therefore places itself with particularly strong responsibilities in the suture between past, present and future. In the past we can turn, in the first instance, under a twofold thrust: burying the dead and removing the sand and grass that cover courts and palaces 4; to reconstruct, to please or not, the path that led us to what we are today, illustrating its difficulties, obstacles, diversions, but also successes. It seems obvious that the second motivation prevails in contemporary history; but the former also has its part. First of all, the dead to be unearthed can also be recent. Secondly, what is being unearthed fascinates us not only because it is different and surprising but also because of the subtle and hidden affinities that we discover attaching to it. The sadness that is both cause and effect of resurrecting Carthage is in itself a link with Carthage 5.
Claudio Pavone, First lesson in contemporary history, Laterza, Rome-Bari 2007, pp. 3-4

Claudio Pavone (1920 - 2016) was an archivist and professor of contemporary history.
Understanding and analysis

    1. Summarize the text by highlighting the main thesis and the arguments adduced.

    2. On what basis does the work of the historian according to Arnaldo Momigliano (1908- 1987) and Marc Bloch (1886-1944), scholars of the ancient world and of the Middle Ages develop?

    3. What function do the two quotations from Ovid and Tacitus play in the general economy of speech?

    4. What role is recognized in family memories in developing the attitude of young people in true history?

    5. In the last paragraph, the concluding conjunction "therefore" announces the summary of the message: summarize it, highlighting the most interesting aspects for you.

Starting from the statement that is read at the conclusion of the passage, "In the past, in the first instance, we can turn under a twofold push: unearth the dead and remove the sand and grass that cover courts and palaces; reconstruct [...] the path to what we are today, illustrating its difficulties, obstacles, diversions, but also successes », reflect on what it means for you to study history in general and contemporary history in particular. Argue your judgments with explicit references to your experience and your knowledge and write a text in which theses and topics are organized in a coherent and cohesive speech that you can - if you consider it useful - divide into paragraphs.

1 A. Momigliano, Historicism revisited, in Id., On the foundations of ancient history, Einaudi, Turin 1984, p. 456.

2 M. Bloch, Apology of history or profession of the historian, Einaudi, Turin 1969, p. 52 (ed. Or. Apologie pour l'histoire ou métier d'historien, Colin, Paris 1949).

3 glories, 1, 225; Histories, 4.8.2: both cited by M.Pani, Tacitus and the end of senatorial historiography, in Cornelio Tacito, Agricola, Germany, Dialogue on the oratory, introduction, translation and notes by M. Stefanoni, Garzanti, Milan 1991, p. XLVIII.

4 Courts and palaces: courtyards and buildings.

5 "Peu de gens devineront combien il fallu être triste pour ressusciter Carhage": so Flaubert, quoted by W. Benjamin in the seventh of Thesis of the philosophy of history, in Angelus novus, translation and introduction by R. Solmi, Einaudi, Turin 1962, p. 75.



Example 2.

The attempt to achieve human rights is continually being called into question. The forces that oppose their realization are numerous: authoritarian regimes, overwhelming and all-encompassing government structures, organized groups that use violence against innocent and defenseless people, more generally, the aggressive impulses and the will to dominate the men who animate those structures and those groups. Against all these "enemies", human rights struggle to raise their voices.
So what to do? To answer, and not with a simple sentence, one must have clear in mind that human rights are a great achievement of thehomo societatis on 'homo biologicus. As a great French biologist, Jean Hamburger, has said so well, nothing is more false than the claim that human rights are "natural rights", that is, coessential to human nature, inherent in man. In fact, he noted, man as a biological being is led to attack and overwhelm the other, to prevaricate in order to survive, and nothing is further from him than altruism and love for the other: "nothing equals the cruelty, the contempt for the individual, the injustice that nature has shown in the development of life ". If "the natural man" has feelings of love and tenderness, it is only to procreate and protect the narrow circle of his blood relatives. Human rights, says Hamburger, are a victory of the social self over the biological one, because they impose to limit their impulses, to respect the other: "the concept of human rights is not inspired by the natural law of life, it is on the contrary, rebellion against the natural law ».
If so, and it doesn't seem to me that Hamburger is wrong, the tension between the two dimensions can never be ended. And one must always be vigilant so that the biological self does not prevail over the social self.
It follows that even a relative and precarious protection of human rights is not achieved in a day or a year: it requires a very long period of time. International protection of human rights is like those natural phenomena - telluric movements, glaciations, climate changes - which are produced imperceptibly, in spans of time that escape the lives of individuals and are measured over generations. Pure human rights operate very slowly, even if - unlike natural phenomena - they do not unfold themselves, but only with the help of thousands of people, non-governmental organizations and states. Above all, it is a process that is not linear, but continually broken by relapses, barriers, stagnations, very long silences. As Nelson Mandela, who has fought a lot for freedom, wrote in his Autobiography: «After climbing a large hill I found that there are still many more hills to climb».
Antonio Cassese, Human rights today, Economica Laterza, Bari 2009 (first ed. 2005), pp, 230-231

Antonio Cassese (1937-2011) was a jurist, expert in international law.

Understanding and analysis

    1. Summarize the text by highlighting the main thesis and the arguments adduced.
    2. In the discussion, a counter-thesis is introduced: individual.
    3. On an argumentative level, what value does the quotation of the French biologist, Jean Hamburger, assume?
    4. Explains the analogy proposed, in the last paragraph, between the international protection of human rights and i natural phenomena imperceptible.
    5. The closing quote from Nelson Mandela which message does he want to communicate to the reader?

Express your judgment on the topicality of the violation of human rights, recently confirmed by very serious news events. Write an argumentative text in which theses and topics are organized in a coherent and cohesive discourse, which you can, if you deem it useful, divide into paragraphs.



Example 3.

A rapid evolution of technologies is certainly the most significant feature of the years to come, fueled and accelerated by the arrival of the structure of the Global Village. […] The Darwinian parallel can be carried further: as in neuronal systems and more generally in biological systems, evolutionary inventiveness is intrinsically associated with interconnection. For example, if we limited the range of interaction between individuals to a few kilometers, as was the case in rural society in the late nineteenth century, we would return to a productivity comparable to that of the time. Interconnection at all levels and in all directions, the "melting pot”, Is therefore an essential element in the catalysis of productivity.
The scientific community was the first to implement such a "melting pot"On a planetary scale. The technological innovation that derives from it is following the same path. The internationalization of science is almost a natural need, since the laws of Nature are evidently universal and often expressed in the common language of mathematics. It is precisely because of this simplicity that this example is a useful reference point.
It proves that globalization is an important "biological" mutant, an inevitable step in evolution. Many of the concerns expressed regarding the consequences of this process have proved to be unfounded. For example, globalization in science has dramatically amplified the effectiveness of research. An even more important fact is that it has not eliminated diversity, but has created a framework within which extremely intensified competition between individuals improves the quality of results and the speed with which they can be achieved. The result is a positive sum mechanism, in which the overall results are much higher than the sum of the same taken separately, the individual negative aspects cancel each other, the positive aspects add up, the good ideas reject the bad ones and the competitive changes progressively undermine the old assumptions from their niches.
But how will we manage to preserve our cultural identity, while enjoying the contribution of globalization which, for the moment, applies to the economic and technical sectors, but which will rapidly invade the whole of our culture? The current state of affairs could make us worried about the danger of absorbing cultural differences and, consequently, of creating a single "planetary brain".

In my opinion, and based on my experience in the scientific community, it is only a passing phase and this fear is not justified. On the contrary, I believe that we will witness an explosion of diversity rather than a uniformization of cultures. All individuals will have to appeal to their regional diversity, their specific culture and traditions in order to increase their competitiveness and find ways to get out of global uniformization. I would even say, paraphrasing Descartes, "Cogito, ergo sum", that cultural identity is synonymous with existence. The diversification between the cultural roots of each of us is a powerful generator of new ideas and innovation. It is from these differences that the different, that is the new, is generated. There is a place and a role for each of us: it is up to us to identify and conquer them. Nonetheless, it must be recognized that, although uniformity can create boredom, the difference is not without its problems. The unification of Europe is undoubtedly a good example.
Nonetheless, there is a great danger in all this that should not be underestimated. It is clear that not everyone will be able to assimilate such a rapid change, dominated by new technologies. Part of society will inevitably remain on the sidelines of this process, a new generation of illiterate "technology" will reach the crowd of those who are already socially useless today and this will aggravate the problem of marginalization.
This shows that, at all levels, education and training are a necessity. We must act quickly as times are getting shorter and shorter if we follow the indications given to us by the pace at which the evolution proceeds. We will have to rely more on the new generations who, in turn, will have to teach the old ones. This is exactly the opposite of what happens in classical society, in which competence is mainly and automatically attributed to the most important characters for their status or for their political influence. Authority should instead derive from the competence and wisdom acquired through experience and not from the power accumulated over time. [...]

(from the prolusion of Prof. Carlo Rubbia, "Science and man", inauguration of the academic year 2000/2001, University of Bologna)

Understanding and analysis

  1. Briefly summarize this passage from Carlo Rubbia's speech, identifying its basic thesis and argumentative development.

  2. What does it mean that "evolutionary inventiveness is intrinsically associated with interconnection" and that "interconnection at all levels and in all directions, the melting potis it therefore an essential element in the catalysis of productivity "? What example does the scientist cite in support of this claim?

  3. Why does Carlo Rubbia call the example of the scientific community in support of his thesis?

  4. What great change is there between classical society and today's society?


Carlo Rubbia's reflection anticipated the problematic reality of our times by about twenty years: the consequences of globalization on a technological and cultural level. Based on your personal knowledge and your training path, express your considerations on the relationship between technology, globalization, diversity.



Example 1.

«You have to propose an end to your life to live happily. Or literary glory, or fortunes, or dignity, a career in sum. I have never been able to conceive what they can enjoy, how they can live those strikers and carefree who (even mature or old) pass from enjoyment to enjoyment, from toy to toy, without ever having set a purpose to aim at habitually, without ever having said, fixed, among themselves: what good will my life be for? I have not been able to imagine what life they are leading, what death they are waiting for. After all, these ends are of little value in themselves, but the means, the occupations, the hope, the imagining of them as great addictive goods, of thinking about them and of procuring them, are very important. Man can and needs to manufacture goods of his own in this way. "
G. LEOPARDI, Zibaldone of thoughts, in All the works, edited by W. Binni, II, Sansoni,
Florence 1988, p. 4518.3

The quote from Leopardi's Zibaldone proposes a sort of "art of happiness": according to Leopardi, life finds meaning in the search for goals that, if achieved, we imagine can make us happy. By renouncing this research, we would reduce our existence to a "bare life" made only of superficiality and emptiness. Do you think Leopardi's words are close to today's youthful sensitivity? Think about it by referring to your experiences, knowledge and personal reading.
You can possibly articulate your reflection in appropriately titled paragraphs and present the discussion with an overall title that briefly expresses its content.



Example 2.

Fragility is at the origin of understanding needs and sensitivity to understand how to help and be helped.
A humanism driven to know its fragility and to live it, not to hide it as if it were a weakness, a shameful discard for the desire for power, which is based on real strength and if anything on its prostheses. Shameful for a crazy logic in which respect equals fear.
A civilization where your frailty gives strength to that of another and falls on you promoting social health which means serenity. Serenity, not the ephemeral happiness of a moment, but the continuous condition on which moments of intoxication can be inserted.
Fragility as the foundation of wisdom capable of recognizing that the wealth of the individual is the other by itself, and that alone we are not even men, but only misanthropes who have misinterpreted their own life and that of the social whole.
Vittorino ANDREOLI, The glass man. The strength of fragility, Rizzoli 2008

The proposed quote, taken from an essay by the psychiatrist Vittorino Andreoli, poses the awareness of one's own fragility and weakness as elements of authentic strength in the human condition. Reflect on this issue, referring to your knowledge, experiences and personal reading.
You can possibly articulate your reflection in appropriately titled paragraphs and present the discussion with an overall title that briefly expresses its content.

Maximum duration of the test: 6 hours.
The use of the Italian dictionary and the bilingual dictionary (Italian-language of the country of origin) is allowed for candidates of non-Italian native speakers.

Video: Introduction to Computer Graphics fall 2019, Lecture 1: Introduction (January 2022).